There was a time.. when fibre was mostly about constipation. Then came findings that fibre increases glucose control and helps prevent type 2 diabetes. This was followed by research showing fibre has cardiovascular benefits, including cholesterol reduction [f.32].
White-Star Advanced Oat Fibre (AOF) is the best choice whether you want to enhance texture, add moisture, extend shelf life, improve strength and flexibility, or increase the health impact of your products and search for delicious ways to answer the call for more fiber.
|Definition - Physiology||Dietary Fibre as Pre-Biotic|
|Impact on the Digestive Tract||Short Chain Fatty Acids (SCFA)|
|Cholesterol Reduction||Blood Glucose and Diabetes|
|Coronary Heart Disease||Metabolic Syndrom|
|Slimline and Weight Control||Recommended Consumption|
|Regulations, Health Claims||Food Labelling|
Dietary fibres are bioactive substances that contribute to people's health and well-being. Food fibre means the fractions of the edible part of plants that are resistant to digestion and therefore are mainly excreted unmetabolized. However, it must be noted that part of the fibres are fermented by the enzymes of the bowel microorganisms to SCFA [f.08].
Dietary fibres ensure sustainable satiation and provide manifold beneficial effects for digestion and wholesomeness [f.07]. Against all previous opinion do fibres contribute some energy to the organism (see: Regulations - energy labelling).
In a nutshell: increase dietary fiber, decrease disease [f.25]
Rich in fibre diets stimulate the salivation already at consumption and thus prevent tooth decay [f.26].< info >
Blood lipids, gallstones, arteriosclerosis and the risk of heart attacks are extremely reduced. Many diets are based on a high fibre content, as dietary fibres depress the appetite [f.07] with the result of an easy accessible lower food consumption.
Soluble or insoluble?
Dietary fibres include hydrocolloides, oligo- and polysaccharides (e.g. celluloses, hemicelluloses, resistant starches), and material that maintains and supports the structure and texture of plants (e.g. lignin) [f.09]. All those are physiologic active carbohydrates and do not force the organism to involve metabolic process. It is of great value that in the gastrointestinal tract they absorb macromolucules like saturated fatty acids and glucose from foods [f.29], thus working in favour to the organism. These polymer carbs differ in the nature of its components. Depending on chemical structure and chain length, fibres are considered soluble or insoluble [a.05].
Confirmed clinical benefits of dietary fibre include lowered risks of heart disease, diabetes, obesity, stroke, ulcer, acid reflux, diverticulitis, hemorrhoids and others. While a balance of insoluble and soluble fibres appears to be necessary for some of these effects, fermentable soluble fibres (e.g. psyllium) specially lower blood pressure, reduce glycemic and insulin response, lower colon cancer risk and LDL cholesterol [f.32].
Above all the health enhancing effects of dietary fibres, the soluble fraction causes increased production of anti-inflammatory proteins (interleukin-4), thus strengthen the immune system. It changes the personality of immune cells from being pro-inflammatory to anti-inflammatory, healing cells that help us recover faster from infections [f.24].
Pre-biotics are non-digestible food ingredients, used as a source of fuel for the gut bacteria. Without food, these bacteria cannot survive and perform their beneficial effects in the large bowel [f.06, f.23]. Fiber is feed for our gut's microorganisms [f.32].
Insoluble food fibres, resistant starch and oligosaccharides are the feed source for the intestinal flora (read also carbohydrates of teff) where they stimulate the growth and activity of beneficial bacteria (such as bifidobacteria), but also reduce the population of pathogenic bacteria (as E.coli, Clostridia, and bacteroides) [f.26]. Hence pre-biotics contribute to the overall health of the bowel. Additionally, the enlarged colon flora leads to increased stool bulk (of which around 40% are intestinal bacteria).< info >
It is well established that dietary fibre is an important factor in maintaining healthy bowel function and hence may play an important role in preventing colon cancer. Insoluble fibres fill up the intestines and thus stimulate the peristalsis. It increases stool weight and, decreases gut transit time and in so doing, helps to relieve constipation [f.06, f.09, f.26, l.06, l.07].< info >
Increased dietary fibre intake is suggested to lower the risk of Colorectal cancer (one of the most common forms of cancer) [f.16, f.17, l.11]. The more fibre you consume the lower is the risk of bowel cancer [l.10].
Results of a topical study show that the intake of dietary fibre may reduce the risk of pancreatic cancer by 50 to 60% [f.27].
Prebiotic fibres are linked to probiotic benefits, acting anti-inflammatory [f.32]. Dietary fibre stimulates the bowel activity and are partially degraded to short chain fatty acids (SCFA) by the intestinal flora [f.07, f.26]. The production of SCFA lowers the pH of the gut. Acetate and propionate are metabolized mainly in the liver. Butyrate is an important source of energy for the colon cells which helps to keep them wholesome. Not only it maintains the cells in the bowel wall healthy, it has also been shown to inhibit the growth and proliferation of tumor cells [l.10].< info >
In this acidic environment, the conversion of primary bile acids into carcinogenic derivatives is inhibited and the solubility of free bile acids is reduced making them less carcinogenic [f.06].
Oat fibre, in contrast to wheat fibre [f.11, f.19], ensures the reduction of plasma total and LDL-cholesterol [f.18, g.02]. As a result of the bacterial degradation of dietary fibres, active fission products are formed which inhibit the cholesterol synthesis in the liver [f.09].
Unbroken fibre strains bind bile acids (which consist of cholesterol at 80%) and further metabolites in the colon, to drop those with the feces [f.08]. Similarly, toxic heavy metal concentrations and pesticides are reduced [f.06]. In order to generate new bile acids, farther cholesterol is worked up by the organism: A straight forward process to definitely lowering the blood total and LDL cholesterol level [f.10, f.26].< info >
The intake of dietary fibre as well as wholemeal food lowers the risk of hypertension incidence. Also, it is well established that increased consumption of cereal fibre reduces the risk of diabetes mellitus type 2 [l.08, l.10].< info >
Increasing numbers of people fight obesity, poor cholesterol values and high blood glucose levels. To prevent suffering metabolism and developing diabetes, care must be taken to optimize daily dietary fibre intake. Insoluble cereal fibres are extremely contributing to prevent diabetis mellitus [f.28].
Soluble dietary fibres are as well essential in diets for diabetics. Reliably, they provide the conditions to prevent rapid increasing of the blood glucose level after the meal [f.09, f.26] (read also the low glycemic index of teff). This is caused when specific soluble fibres block the amylase activity. The degradation of consumed starch into sugars is delayed with the result of less insulin concentration is released [f.10, f.16].< info >
Dietary fibre has a positive impact on the fat metabolism. In addition, a higher fibre consumption stimulates the inreased transformation and excretion of fat [f.10]. Fibre-rich food significantly suppresses the sensation of hunger and protects from gaining weight by eating too much (compare: slim-fast grain Teff). Food products low in fat and rich in fibre satiate for a long time and entirely reduce the appetite [f.06].
Dietary fibres are generally considered low energy dense foods because they provide few calories only. In other words, they allow you to eat more for the same amount of calories than high energy dense foods.< info >
In adulthood, increased fibre intake protects against obesity (adipositas) preventively [l.08].
Adults should consume at least 30 g of dietary fibre [l.10] from a variety of different food sources (cereals, pulses, vegetables, salad, fruit) every day. Children aged 3 to 18 should have their age plus 5 g of dietary fibre a day [f.06].
The Scientific NDA (nutrition, dietetic products, and allergies) Panel of the EFSA has drawn 'Dietary Reference Values' (DRV) for the carbs, fibre and fat consumption of Europeans [f.13]: A daily intake of 25 grams of dietary fibre is adequate for normal bowel function in adults. In addition evidence in adults shows there are health benefits associated with higher intakes of dietary fibre (e.g. reduced risk of heart disease, type 2 diabetes and weight maintenance).
Directive 2008/100/EC includes the general nutritional labelling provisions and specifies that fibre should be defined [l.07]. Minimum fibre content for nutrition and health claims is set in the Regulation (EC) 1924/2006 [l.12]:
A claim that a food is a source of fibre, and any claim likely to have the same meaning for the consumer, may only be made where the product contains at least 3 g of fibre per 100 g or at least 1,5 g of fibre per 100 kcal.
A claim that a food is high in fibre, and any claim likely to have the same meaning for the consumer, may only be made where the product contains at least
6 g of fibre per 100 g or at least 3 g of fibre per 100 kcal.
When FAO indicated that 70 % of the fibre in traditional foods is assumed to be fermentable and suggested a corresponding energy conversion factor, the Directive 2008/100/EC [l.07] defined an energy value for fibre of 8 kJ/g (2 kcal/g), effective 31.10.2012.
Committed at the 27th session of the Codex Committee on Nutrition and Foods for Special Dietary Uses (CCNFSDU):
Properties of dietary fibre generally are:
In 2009, CODEX Alimentarius set a new definition for dietary fiber, which acknowledged that non-digestible oligosaccharides and resistant starch behave physiologically as dietary fiber. The analytical method AOAC 2009.01 (McCleary method) includes all components of dietary fiber as defined by CODEX, suggested by EFSA and other international authorities (Megazyme: Enzymatic-gravimetric method and HPLC [f.14]).
Added fiber develops a three-dimensional network inside the food products which provides texture and improves stability. Its strong synergism to hydrocolloides (as starch, dextrins, etc.) is widespread used to increase the viscosity and replace thickening additives.
Lots of water is absorbed by the capillary attraction of the microfibrils, linked to the fiber strains by hydrogen bonds. The water is evenly distributed in the finished product and bound stable through processing, storage, and transport. As the water binding capacity is almost unaffected by the formulation or parameters like pH and temperature (even bake-stable), it provides prolonged shelf-life, freshness and juiciness to foods.
Fibre holds the moisture well distributed in the finished food product (pizza crust is a good example) and thus, dietary fibres are eminently suitable to prevent syneresis.
As the water is bound by strong capillary forces, the formation of large ice-crystals is significantly inhibited. That's why freeze-thaw cycles do not permit to grow ice crystals, preventing that the consisting structure of the food gets damaged. Also, freezing and thawing processes are remarkable faster since the moisture stays evenly distributed.
The high absorbtion capability for oils and fats is also based on the strong capillary power of the fibre strains. It is the reason for the excellent emulsifying properties of food fibres, but also ensures that fat or oil is not released at cooking.
The absorption of moisture and oil has a positive effect on the anticaking and free-flowing properties of fine dispersed preparations and flowing powders. Benefits that are taken advantage in a wide range of food processing like grated cheese, spices or dried fruits.
Fill up on fiber each day and you may live a longer life.Nutrition Horizon, 18.2.2011
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